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Shimberg Health Sciences Library & Florida Blue Health Knowledge Exchange

Physical Therapy Research Guide

Style Guides


After a Direct Quote

"Hearing voices no one else can hear isn't a good sign, even in the wizarding world" (p169)

TIP!  Always include the page number if you are making a direct quote.

After Paraphrase or Summarization

Ron is Harry’s father’s nephew3 so Harry and Ron are related by more than marriage. 

After Introducing Authors

Smith, evaluated the…

Smith and colleagues7 evaluated the…

Rowling9 claimed that the work…

TIP! If in doubt, CITE IT. Don't risk committing plagiarism!




TIP!  If the DOI is available, use that in place of the "Available from: [URL]"

TIP! Journal titles should be abbreviated. Find journal abbreviations in the NLM Catalog

Database Article 

TIP! If you are missing information, give as much as you can. Remember your goal is to help readers follow your trail.


Contributions to a Book


Package Insert 




TIP! If you copy/paste information, watch out for stowaways, such as hyperlinks or other characters that may tag along for the ride.


Bibliography & References


In most cases, your References page should include all of the pertinent information, such as is shown here.


  1. Wagner AK, Zhang F, Soumerai SB, et al. Benzodiazepine use and hip fractures in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jul 26;164(14):1567-72.
  2. Malone PM, Keir KL, Stanovich JE, editors. Drug information: a guide for pharmacists. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2012
  3. Edmond MB, Diejema DJ, Perencevich EN. Ebola virus disease and the need for new personal protective equipment. JAMA [Internet]. Epub 2014 Oct 28[cited 2014 Oct 29];[3p.] Available from:

TIP! Remain consistent in the style that you use throughout your manuscript/poster AND references.


For posters and other places where space is at a premium, you may save space by using an abridged citation style for your References section. 

  1. Wagner et al. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(14):1567-72.
  2. Malone et al. Drug information. 2012.
  3. Edmond et al. JAMA. 2014

TIP! Only capitalize the FIRST word and the PROPER NOUNS in titles.